Now that the Harvey Weinstein revelations have seared into public consciousness, the country has been thrown into Sexual harassment papers turbulent process of confronting and rapidly
Sexual harassment papers an insidious form of abuse that haunts American workers, often silently
Sexual harassment papers mostly unchecked.
As targets have come Sexual harassment papers to reveal how sexual harassment has blighted and shaped their working lives and economic trajectories, we are reconsidering how to value and measure the experiences of those who have been targeted and beginning to reckon the costs to the broader economy and society.
The shifts and new information appearing in connection to the MeToo movement provide a golden opportunity for social scientists to do the critical work of Sexual harassment papers the vast economic dimensions of a mammoth problem that has so far lumbered largely under the radar.
Sexual harassment papers, particularly in the male-dominated field of economics, also have chance to synchronize their work with the needs and concerns of the broader society and to help rectify wrongs — not the least of which are problems in their own Sexual harassment papers. While the reality is of course much older, the law only caught up to sexual harassment a
Sexual harassment papers decades ago — slowly and by fits and starts.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC was created to enforce and administer the law, but federal courts typically refused to view sexual harassment as a form of employment discrimination until the s, when it came to be perceived under the umbrella of gender discrimination. But precision is tricky: There is certainly a
Sexual harassment papers for more extensive and finely tuned assessments of prevalence, but polls and studies across a variety of settings and contexts suggest that sexual harassment in the American workplace is common.
Inthe combined number of sexual harassment charges filed with the EEOC and state and local Fair Employment Practices Agencies was over 10,but the EEOC task force report on the topic notes that the problem is underreported.
It gives a range of percent of women who have experienced sexual harassment on the job. The agency attributed the broadness of the range to a number of factors, including how questions were asked, how sexual harassment was defined, and the type Sexual harassment papers sample. Among surveys and polls distributed across research literature and journalistic accounts, a range of one quarter to one third of workers seems fairly consistent.
For example, a recent poll conducted by MSN, in partnership with Business Insider, revealed that one in three people 31 percent in the U. Altogether, 45 percent of women surveyed cited sexual harassment problems at work — around The group experiencing the most abuse was women between the ages 30 and 44, of whom close to half 49 percent said they had undergone unwanted sexual attention while working.
In addition, 15 percent of men said they had experienced workplace sexual harassment. Cases are hard to win, and victims may be afraid to come forward, anticipating defamation lawsuits, Sexual harassment papers, and the burden of coming up with corroborating witnesses.
Time is not on the side of targets: That problem is likely to get worse: Violent sexual assault, an extreme form of sexual harassment, also happens in the workplace, with immigrant women and undocumented workers at particularly high risk. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that from toworkplace rapes Sexual harassment papers sexual assaults numbered 36, though it is safe to say that this number falls significantly short of actual occurrences.
across the socio-economic spectrum seem to run a gauntlet of sexual abuse in exchange for the privilege of earning a living. It happens from the top to the bottom of the workplace hierarchy and across all industries and sectors. Certain risk factors appear to be common in workplaces with high rates. In the EEOC found that it occurred most frequently in situations where diversity is lacking among employees and also those where workers are highly diverse but segregated across
Sexual harassment papers types.
Problems showed up more often when there is a star in the workplace who flouts the rules, as well as those with high numbers of young or immigrant workers or monotonous duties. Places where customer service and client recommendations are key to job performance and tied to compensation were more likely to have higher rates of sexual harassment, as did jobs where workers perform duties in isolated places where management is far away and those where alcohol is flowing.
In the service-related industries, especially food service and retail, filed more than three times as many claims as those in higher-paying fields such as finance and insurance. The EEOC data reveals that between andaround 25 percent of complaints came from the service sector. Women surveyed often responded to the harassment by cutting back hours, changing their shifts, or quitting. But 42 percent said they felt compelled to accept it out of fear of losing jobs they could not afford to lose.
These are sectors that disproportionately hire women of color, who may face additional burdens of racial stereotyping and lack of support systems if they speak out against harassment. Beginning ineight states passed laws known as the Domestic Worker Bill of Rightswhich include protections from sexual harassment, but that leaves 42 states where workers may face unclear and burdensome processes for filing charges under Sexual harassment papers state statues involving harassment and discrimination.
Freelancers and workers in the gig economy also find sexual harassment difficult to navigate. While a few states, such as California, have protections against sexual harassment for independent contractors, most do not offer targets clear pathways for addressing abuse. Blue-collar workers face their own sexual harassment challenges. A recent New York Times account drawing on information from Sexual harassment papers EEOC, employment lawyers, academics, and employees found that women in blue-collar jobs, a sector where the share of women has fallen, face rampant sexual harassment and may view it as a condition of employment.
They may face particular risks of physical Sexual harassment papers when they are targeted as well as ambivalent responses from unions and blacklisting in their industry Sexual harassment papers they report misconduct. The impact of sexual harassment may hold back lower-income women from reaching the middle class. Union responses to sexual harassment have been insufficient and in some cases counterproductive.
Among the revelations of the recent exposure of pervasive sexual harassment at Ford Motor Company factories in Chicago were allegations that the United Automobile Workers union not only discouraged women from filing complaints but that some union representatives actually harassed women themselves. Labor organizer and author Jane McAlevey has highlighted troubling patterns within Sexual harassment papers labor movement of sexist, predominantly white male leadership that hinders progress.
Such imbalances, she writes, lead to an emphasis on protecting male workers alleged to harass, pervasive Sexual harassment papers for sectors like education, healthcare, and the public sector where women predominate, and a lack of support for organizing strategies that would help both unionized and non-union workers targeted by sexual harassment.
In the corporate world, patterns of abuse are often hidden behind a wall of obfuscation. For example, recent revelations at Uber suggest that nondisclosure and nondisparagement agreements served to silence complaints.
Employees are made to sign away rights in order to work and have to take grievances through a dubious and hidden negotiation process in which management and lawyers are in control. Rising to high levels in their field does not necessarily protect women from sexual harassment. According to one study by sociologists at the University of Maine and University of Minnesota, women who obtain power in the workplace, particularly in male-dominated environments, may be even more likely to be
Sexual harassment papers than less powerful females, contrary to popular perception.
They found that 58 percent of female supervisors in predominantly male work environments are likely to experience harassment, while 42 might expect in female dominated workplaces. Researchers Sexual harassment papers that harassers driven less by sexual desire than an urge to control and dominate women who were Sexual harassment papers as Sexual harassment papers threat to male privilege.
Some researchsuch as a paper by Anne Maas, Silvia Galdi and Mara Cadinu, suggests that workplaces that feature hierarchical structures and significant power imbalances are more prone to sexual harassment. Unsurprisingly, it is a serious problem academia, with graduate students who work closely with supervisors wielding substantial power Sexual harassment papers their trajectories and job prospects appearing to be particularly vulnerable.
A recent crowd-sourced survey created by Karen Kelsky, who runs an academic job consulting business, focused on higher education and gained widespread media attention. Though it does not claim to be scientific, the survey nonetheless contains illuminating descriptions of how and under what Sexual harassment papers harassment may occur, giving potential researchers useful clues about where to investigate.
Kidder analyzing nearly faculty-graduate student harassment cases for commonalities found that most faculty harassers are accused of physical rather than verbal harassment, and that over half of cases involve alleged serial perpetrators. The authors found that one in ten female graduate students at major research universities said that they had been sexually harassed by a male faculty member. They noted a paucity of scholarship on the topic, due in part to hindrances like confidentiality restrictions that keep harassment occurring on campus out of public view.
Like a stealthy virus, sexual harassment impacts the wellbeing of society at every level. Ineconomist Kaushik Basu of Cornell University published a paper arguing that exposure to sexual harassment has something in common with exposure to excessive health hazards and working excessive hours due to its biological impact. But what is the big picture of the economic impact?
Part of the resistance to taking the issue of sexual harassment seriously in the workplace has surely been a lack of understanding of the economic consequences. In surveying the scholarship landscape on the subject, over and over one finds the statement: Until recently, much of the attention to the economic impact of sexual harassment has centered on the cost to companies. Beyond the expense of providing sexual harassment training and protocols, the most obvious costs are those incurred in legal settlements and lawsuits.
A study released by the Society for Human Resource Managers found that one in three companies had dealt with sexual harassment claims within the past two years.
Recent noteworthy cases involving sexual harassment suggest that the cost to companies can be quite high: Court records show the award was later vacated when attorneys reached a negotiated settlement. Beyond these costs are the indirect costs of problems like lower productivity, higher turnover, and reputational harm. It is important to note that the stories that make the headlines are not an accurate sample of what occurs across the American business landscape: The financial and economic burdens born by women themselves, while undoubtedly significant, are difficult to quantify.
We need to know more the effects of sexual harassment and retaliation for reporting it on things like wages, job performance, and career opportunities, not least because targets who pursue legal action are asked to show measurable harm, which requires reliable Sexual harassment papers. Sociologists Heather McLaughlin, Christopher Uggen, Sexual harassment papers Amy Blackstone have
Sexual harassment papers one of the few recent pieces of research on how sexual harassment impacts women economically.
Overall, 80 of women who experienced severe sexual harassment left their jobs within two years. Such women were also more likely to move to a different industry and reduce their work hours following incidents.
They also observed that women, compared to men, experience far more serious effects from interruptions to their work path. According to the study, sexually harassed women reported greater financial distress two years later than those who were not targeted.
The authors cited a willingness among targets to accept Sexual harassment papers economic consequences in order to escape sexual harassment, saying that they often endured financial strain due to unemployment, career uncertainty, diminished hours or pay and anxiety about starting a new job. They found that overall impact is on par with that of serious injury or illness, incarceration or assault. They also found that many women have suffered long-term career effects as they lowered their aspirations and narrowed their field of opportunity to avoid a repeat of the degrading experience.
Those who stood up to hostile work environments, meanwhile, were penalized with career stagnation and ostracization — even if they were not themselves the targets of the harassment. In a recent interview, McLaughlin acknowledged the difficulty of putting a dollar figure on the Sexual harassment papers losses to women, citing the problem of capturing what women experience in research models.
She noted, as an example, discrepancies in the conduct women said they experienced and whether or not they would characterize such behavior as sexual harassment. Researchers know that they face murky waters when diving into the subject.
The difficulty of obtaining true rates of the problem and dealing with variations in impact, the potential differences in losses among industries, the conflation of broader gender discrimination and sexual harassment, and the problem of parsing cases in which multiple forms of discrimination are at play, such as sexual harassment together with racial discrimination, all create challenges.
The work of sexual harassment and its specific impact on women of color, trans people, from other forms of harassment they are subject to, and accounting for their effects is critical. There is also the difficulty of precisely defining the damage and tracking its more insidious effects. A study found strong evidence that among active duty personnel in the U. Similar evidence was found by psychology researchers in a study on female private sector and university employees who experienced both high-level and frequent, low-level sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment papers calculating the cost of such experience is daunting. Does lower job satisfaction cause workers to apply less effort? What are the effects on other employees? What measures of profitability and performance could capture the impact?
Sociologists like Heather MacLauglin and anthropologists like Kate Clancey, professor of anthropology at the University of Illinois and lead author of a study of the extent of sexual harassment in scientific fields, have provided valuable qualitative and research on the prevalence and characteristics of harassment for economists to draw on for their own analyses.
Joni Hersch, Sexual harassment papers economist and professor of law and economics at Vanderbilt University, looked at the measurement of sexual harassment risks at work by industry, age group and sex and found that female workers are six times more likely than males to experience sexual harassment on the job. In her studyshe found that women in workplaces where sexual harassment is common earn slightly more than they would in jobs with a lower risk of abuse, concluding that the difference was attributable to danger pay.
Economist Elise Gould of the Economic Policy Institute disagrees with this interpretation, arguing that women not willing to put up with harassment are being pushed out into lower-paying jobs. Whether or not the concept of danger pay is applicable to sexual harassment, it appears that trying escape it may be economically burdensome to workers. Historically, a lack of attention to the subject of sexual harassment, along with attendant of funding and support for research, has been a barrier to proper assessment.
Lack of scholarship on the economic cost of sexual harassment also likely reflects the biases of an economics field heavily dominated by men and closely aligned with power structures that reinforce gender imbalances and inequality. Policy Guidance Documents Related to Sexual Harassment. Policy Guidance on Current Issues of Sexual Harassment · Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious.
The Australian Women's History Network's (AWHN) recent report on sexual harassment and discrimination in Australian
Sexual harassment papers reveals the need for more. [Explanatory note: This sample sexual harassment policy is intended for use by discrimination on any ground and Sexual harassment papers harassment Sexual harassment papers work including sexual.