Attachment theory is one of the Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style.
No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress.
Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
Attachment is a relatively stable emotional bond which is created between child and mother or those with whom an infant regularly interacts.
Adult attachment styles are into three categories: Secure people are intimate and comfortable in making relationships, and they are sure that others would like them. They have a positive image of themselves and have positive expectations of others. They have a strong desire for Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating relationships but also have many concerns of rejection. These people have a negative image of themselves, but a positive attitude toward others.
For this group of people, self-reliance is the most valuable issue. People with avoidance attachment style have negative expectations and attitudes toward others. One of the important aspects of life is happiness. In recent decades, Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating researchers and authorities have shifted their focus toward the topics such as joy, happiness, life satisfaction, and positive emotions. The relationship between subjective well-being and emotion regulation with attachment styles in various studies has been explained.
This research was aimed to assess the relationship between attachment styles and happiness and demographic characteristics of medical students. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on medical students in Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, in As exclusion criteria, students who were unwilling to fill out a questionnaire and guest students
Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating excluded from the study. Since there were five independent variables in the study and it was needed to include 35 samples for each variable in the regression model, the calculated sample size was people; a total of students were included in the study.
Samples were chosen through stratified sampling method different levels of education and each stratum was proportional to the size of each class. To collect the data, after obtaining permission from the Ethics Committee of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, list of all medical students, which was classified by educational level, was obtained from education office.
The samples were systematically selected from the list provided by education office; they were selected in proportion to the number of students in each educational level Physiopathology, Extern, Intern level. After taking their consent to participate in research and explaining the
Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating, questionnaires were given to the participants.
The questionnaires were filled out by the students and were collected the same day. Before completing the questionnaire 47 questionsstudents were assured that all information will be confidential, and they were also asked to answer the questions accurately.
They were allowed to ask their questions in case of facing any ambiguity in the questionnaire. This scale is developed by Hazan and Shaver and it has 15 items, with five items for each of the three types of secure attachment, ambivalent attachment, avoidant attachment style.
The score of each attachment subscale is obtained by calculating the mean of five items for each subscale. In various studies, the reliability of the questionnaire Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating been calculated from 0. To measure the happiness variable, the revised oxford happiness inventory was used which had an overall reliability of 0. Quantitative data were described using the mean and standard deviation SDand string variables were described using frequency and percentage.
The correlation between happiness score and attachment style scores were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The difference between the happiness score and the scores of different attachment styles in each sex were compared using independent tests. Finally, using multiple regressions enter methodhappiness variable as the dependent variable and the score of different attachment styles, gender, educational level, and grade point average GPA as the independent variables, if applicable, Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating entered into the model.
A total of 89 students Overall, the mean SD score of happiness was There was no significant relationship between gender and attachment styles, however, the happiness score was The avoidant attachment style was 9. The relationship between gender and marital status of the studied subjects with attachment styles and happiness scores.
There was no significant relationship between the happiness score and educational level.
The score of Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating attachment style in students with GPA of 17—20 was about 9. Comparison of the relationship between happiness scores and attachment style and other variables using multiple regression analysis.
The most common attachment style among students was secure attachment style that was consistent with the results of other studies. In our study, the minimum frequency was observed in ambivalent attachment style; our finding was similar to other studies. Due to differences in statistical samples and scales, which have been used in these two studies, these differences can be Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating. There was no significant relationship between attachment style and
Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating. In Besharat et al.
Usually, the schema does not change without treatment. Attachments formed in childhood can affect adulthood and the attachment between child and primary caregiver usually mother is internalized and serves as a mental model. According to our results, there was a significant relationship between avoidant attachment style and marital status, and avoidant attachment style was more common among single people than married; so, avoidant Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating could be a barrier to marriage.
This finding is consistent with the results of Simpson et al. The results showed no significant relationship between attachment style and GPA of individuals; however, secure attachment style was less common in participants with high GPA. Individuals with a secure attachment style are better able to interact with the environment, so they are expected to have better educational status, but the results of our study did not confirm this idea.
It might be that struggling to get a score, sometimes help individual to compensate for a sense of frustration and low self-control. It is also possible that the educational system would create an unhealthy competitive environment and promote negative behaviors such as blind imitation without critical thinking. On the other hand, in our study, it was not determined to which educational level and age range each GPA belongs.
In addition, the effects of other factors were not considered, and they have not even been considered in other studies as well, and this is one of the limitations of our study. The average happiness score of students in the study was In Sheikhmoonesi et al. On the other hand, the statistical sample size, the age range, and demographic conditions can justify these differences.
In our study, secure attachment style was associated with higher happiness scores this finding was consistent with the findings of other studies. Researches also
Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating that people with insecure attachment styles are more affected with emotional and psychological challenges and with increasing the feeling of helplessness in the marital relationship, they will be at lower levels Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating happiness.
As another results of our study, there was a significant relationship between happiness scores and gender; accordingly, the happiness scores in boys was higher than that in girls. In Keshavarz et al. We studied students, while in Keshavarz et al. In Danesh study[ 48 ] and Solymani's et al. However, in Solymani's et al. To interpret these differences, it can be said that working and educational condition, society's attitudes toward gender, which is strongly influenced by cultural factors, can affect a person's happiness.
In our study, there was a negative correlation between age and happiness scores; however, this relationship was not significant. To justify the consistency between the two studies, we can note the similarities in the field of study and age range. In Boogar et al. In our studied population, individuals at different ages are not facing the same stressors and expectations; indeed, the course materials, environmental conditions, and people whom they are communicating with professors, personals working in different wards, and patients are Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating at any stage.
Life satisfaction is not an objective and stable trait, rather it is sensitive to situational changes and is shaped based on individual's perceptions and perspectives.
In multiple regression analysis which was performed with the control of key factors, variables of secure attachment style, gender, and GPA were associated with higher happiness scores. Such an analysis has not been carried out in other studies and is one of the strengths of our study. The higher GPA was associated with higher scores and other studies have not addressed this issue.
There was higher level of dissatisfaction and expectation among people with lower GPAs; on the other hand, students with higher GPAs are dealing with more stress of keeping current situation and they have more competition with others. Moreover, mediocre GPA did not indicate higher dissatisfaction, and it might even signify less competitive pressure and family expectations; this greatly originates from individual's attitudes and expectations.
Perfection-seeking individuals may excessively get higher scores, but they are less satisfied and happy. According to our results, the satisfaction score was not significantly associated with educational level which was consistent with the results of Sheikhmonesi et al. Based on the findings of this study, the most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which could be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress.
The frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons was higher than that in married people, which is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.
The variables of secure attachment style, male gender, and average GPA were associated with higher happiness scores these factors can be taken into account while planning for promoting happiness levels in students. This article is extracted from the thesis of Negar Rostamian.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Family Med Prim Care. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Attachment styles, demographic characteristics, happiness, medical students. Introduction Attachment is a relatively stable emotional bond which is created between child and mother or those with whom an infant regularly interacts. Materials and Methods This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on medical students in Kurdistan University of Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating Sciences, in Data collection tools Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure This scale is developed by Hazan and Shaver and it has 15 items, with five items for each of the three types of secure attachment, ambivalent attachment, and avoidant style.
Oxford happiness inventory To measure the happiness variable, the revised oxford happiness inventory was used which had an overall reliability of 0. Table 1 The distribution of demographic variables in studied subjects. Open in a separate window. Studied 99 couples who were dating and compared them to randomly paired couples Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating. more miserable, lonely, depressed, and unhappy; Moghaddam et al.
( ): North American relationships are mainly individualistic (concerned with the.
In individualist Societies, some relationships, such as peer relationships, are also group based. Dating Moghaddam et al 1993 relationships dating perform much the same function as the parents in an cultures because we may have a choice (Moghaddam et al., ).
Moghaddam et al () argues that interpersonal relationships: Families play an active and often decisive role in choosing marriage partners for the young.