Edited and revised by David C. Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants. There are two types of propagation: Sexual reproduction is the union of pollen and egg, drawing from the genes of two parents to create a new, third individual.
Sexual propagation involves the floral parts a plant. Asexual propagation involves taking a part of one parent plant and causing it to regenerate itself into a new plant. The resulting new plant is genetically identical its parent. Asexual propagation involves the vegetative parts of a plant: The advantages of sexual propagation are that it may be Propagacion asexual propagation and quicker than other methods; it may be the only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor; in certain species, it is the only viable method for propagation; and it is a way to avoid transmission of certain diseases.
Asexual propagation has advantages, too. It may be easier and faster
Propagacion asexual propagation some species; it may be the only way to
Propagacion asexual propagation some cultivars; and it bypasses the juvenile characteristics of certain species. Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen male with the egg female to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: When a seed is mature and put in a favorable environment, it will germinate begin active growth.
In the following section, seed germination and transplanting of seeds will be discussed. Seed To obtain quality plants, start with good quality seed from a reliable dealer. Select varieties to provide the size, color, and habit of growth desired. Choose varieties adapted to your area which will reach maturity before an early frost.
Many new vegetable and flower varieties are hybrids, which cost a little more than open pollinated types. However,
Propagacion asexual propagation plants usually have more vigor, more uniformity, and better production than non-hybrids Propagacion asexual propagation sometimes have specific disease resistance or other unique cultural characteristics.
Quality seed will not contain seed of any other crop, weeds, seeds, or other debris. Printing on the seed packet usually indicates essential information about the variety, the year for which the seeds were packaged, and germination percentage you
Propagacion asexual propagation typically expect, and notes about any chemical seed treatment. If seeds are obtained well in advance of the actual sowing date or are stored surplus seeds, keep them in a cool, dry place.
Propagacion asexual propagation help ensure dry storage. The door shelves in a refrigerator work well. Some gardeners save seed from their own gardens; however, such seed is the result of random pollination by insects or other natural agents, and may not produce plants typical of the parents.
This is especially true of the many hybrid varieties. See UMaine Extension Bulletin for information on how to save your own seed. Germination will begin when certain internal requirements have been met. A seed must have a mature embryo, contain a large enough endosperm to sustain the embryo during germination, and sufficient hormones to initiate the process.
There are four environmental factors which Propagacion asexual propagation germination: The first step in the germination process is the imbibition or absorption of water.
Even though seeds have great absorbing power due to the nature of the seed coat, the amount of available water in the substrate affects the uptake of water. An adequate, continuous supply of water is important
Propagacion asexual propagation ensure germination. Once the germination process has begun, a dry period can cause the Propagacion asexual propagation of the embryo.
Light is known to stimulate or to inhibit germination of some types of seed. The light reaction involved here is a complex process. Some crops which have a Propagacion asexual propagation for light to assist seed germination are ageratum, begonia, browallia, impatiens, lettuce, Propagacion asexual propagation petunia. Conversely, peas, beans, calendula, centaurea, annual phlox, verbena, and vinca will germinate best Propagacion asexual propagation the dark.
Other plants Propagacion asexual propagation not specific at all. Seed catalogs and seed packets often list germination or cultural tips for individual varieties. When sowing light-requiring seed, do as nature does, and leave them on the soil surface.
If they are covered at all, cover them lightly with fine peat moss or fine vermiculite. These two materials, if not applied too heavily, will permit some light to reach the seed and will not limit germination. When starting seed in the home, supplemental light can be provided by fluorescent fixtures suspended 6 to 12 inches above the seeds for 16 hours a day. High intensity lights will provide more light over the course of the day and will enhance the quality of seedlings.
These lights cost more than the common shop lights, but are often worth the investment if you plan on growing plants indoors. In all viable seed, respiration takes place. The respiration in dormant seed is low, but some oxygen is required. The respiration rate increases during germination, therefore, the substrate in which the seeds are placed should be loose and well-aerated.
If the oxygen supply during germination is limited or reduced, germination can be severely retarded or inhibited. A favorable temperature is another important requirement of germination. It not only affects the Propagacion asexual propagation percentage but also the rate of germination. Some seeds will germinate over a wide range of temperatures, whereas others require a narrow
Propagacion asexual propagation. Many seeds have minimum, maximum, and optimum temperatures at which they germinate.
For example, tomato seed has a minimum germination temperature of 50 degrees F. Where germination temperatures are listed, they are usually the optimum temperatures unless otherwise specified.
Generally, 65 to 75 degrees F. This often means the germination flats may have to be placed in special chambers or on radiators, heating cables, or heating Propagacion asexual propagation to maintain optimum temperature.
The importance of maintaining proper substrate temperature to achieve maximum germination percentages cannot be over-emphasized. One of the functions of dormancy is to prevent a seed from germinating before it is surrounded by a favorable environment.
In some trees and shrubs, seed dormancy is difficult to break, even when the environment is ideal. Various treatments are performed on the seed to break dormancy and begin germination. Seed scarification breaking, scratching, or softening the seed coat so that water can enter and begin the germination Propagacion asexual propagation. There are several methods of scarifying seeds.
In acid scarification, seeds are put in a glass container and covered with concentrated sulfuric acid. When the seed coat has become thin, the seeds can be removed, washed, and planted. Another scarification method is mechanical.
Seeds are filed with a metal file, rubbed with sandpaper, or cracked with a hammer to weaken the seed coat. Hot water scarification involves putting the seed into hot water to degrees F. The seeds are allowed to soak in the water, as it cools, for 12 to 24 hours and then planted. A fourth method is one of warm, moist scarification. In this case, seeds are stored in nonsterile, warm, damp containers where the seed coat will be broken down by decay over several months.
Seeds of some fall-ripening trees and shrubs of the temperate zone will not germinate unless chilled underground as they over winter.
The following procedure is usually successful. Put sand or vermiculite in a clay pot to about 1 inch from the top. Wet the medium thoroughly and allow excess water to drain through the hole in the pot. Place the pot containing Propagacion asexual propagation moist medium and seeds in a plastic bag and seal.
Place the bag in a refrigerator. Periodically check to see that the medium is moist, but not wet. Additional water will probably not be necessary. After 10 to 12 weeks, remove the bag from the refrigerator. Take the pot out and it in a warm place in the house. Water often enough to keep the medium moist. Soon the seedlings should emerge. When the young plants are about 3 inches tall, transplant them Propagacion asexual propagation pots to grow Propagacion asexual propagation time for setting outside.
Another procedure that is usually successful uses sphagnum moss or peat moss. Wet the moss thoroughly, then squeeze out the excess water with your hands. Mix seed with the sphagnum or peat and place in a plastic bag.
Seal the bag and put it in a refrigerator. If there is condensation on the inside of the bag, the process will probably be successful. Plant the seeds in pots to germinate and grow. Often the small and shoots are emerging at the end of the stratification period. Care must be taken not to break these off. Temperatures in the range of 35 to 45 degrees F 2 to 70C are effective.
Most refrigerators operate in this range. Seeds of most fruit and nut trees can be successfully germinated by these procedures.
Seeds of peaches should be removed from the hard pit. Care must be taken when cracking the pits. Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings and other plant parts. Plant propagation can also refer to the. Vegetative propagation of Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae). Se discuten métodos exitosos para la propagación de C. Propagacion asexual propagation Bertoloni, de.
Vegetative propagation of patagonian cypress, a vulnerable species from the subantarctic forest of South America. Propagación vegetativa del ciprés de la.