An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification see electric guitar.
The sound waves from the strings of an acoustic guitar resonate through the guitar's body,
Martin guitar history dating methods sound. This typically involves the use of a sound board and a sound box to strengthen the vibrations of the strings. The main source of sound in an acoustic guitar is the string, which is plucked or strummed with the finger or with a pick.
The string vibrates at a necessary frequency and also creates many harmonics at various different frequencies. The frequencies produced can depend on string length, mass, and tension.
The string causes the soundboard and sound box to vibrate, and as these have their own resonances at certain frequencies, they amplify some string harmonics more strongly than others, hence affecting the timbre produced by the instrument. Martin guitar history dating methods guitar is an ancient and noble instrument, whose history can be traced back over years. Many theories have been advanced about the instrument's ancestry, but the modern acoustic guitar comes from a long evolution of stringed musical instruments.
It has often been claimed that the guitar is a development of the medieval instrument Vihuela as evolution of ancient Lute. Gitternsa small plucked guitar were the first small guitar-like instruments created during the spanish Middle Ages with a round back like that of a lute.
The earliest string instruments that related to the guitar and its structure where broadly known as the vihuelas within Spanish musical culture. Vihuelas were string instruments that were commonly seen in the 16th century during the Renaissance. Later, Spanish writers distinguished these instruments into two categories of vihuelas. The vihuela de arco was an instrument that mimicked the violin, and the vihuela de penola was played with a plectrum or by hand. When it was played by hand it was known as the vihuela de mano.
Vihuela de mano shared extreme similarities with the Renaissance guitar as it used hand movement at the sound hole or sound chamber of the instrument to create music. By only six-course vihuela guitars six unison-tuned pairs of strings were being created and had become the main type and model Martin guitar history dating methods guitar used in Spain. Most of the older 5-course guitars were still in use but were also being modified to a six-coursed acoustical guitar.
Fernando Ferandiere's  book Arte de tocar la guitarra espanola por musica Madrid, describes the standard Spanish guitar from his time as an instrument with seventeen frets and six courses with the first two 'gut' strings tuned in unison called the terceras and the tuning named to 'G'
Martin guitar history dating methods the two strings.
The acoustic guitar at this time began to take the shape familiar in the modern acoustic guitar. The coursed pairs of strings eventually became less common in favor of single strings. Finally, circathe form and structure of the modern Guitar is credited to Martin guitar history dating methods guitar maker Antonio Torres Juradowho increased the size of the guitar body, altered its proportions, and invented the breakthrough fan-braced pattern.
Bracing, which refers to the internal pattern of wood reinforcements used to secure the guitar's top and back and prevent the instrument from collapsing under tension, is an important factor in how the guitar sounds. Torres' design greatly improved the volume, tone, and of the instrument, and it has remained essentially unchanged since.
The acoustic guitar's soundboard, or top,
Martin guitar history dating methods has a strong effect on the loudness of the guitar. Woods that actually are good at transmitting sound, like spruce, Martin guitar history dating methods commonly used for the soundboard.
All the energy is provided by the plucking of the string. Without a soundboard, however, the string would just "cut" through the air without actually moving it much. The soundboard increases the surface of the vibrating area in a process called mechanical impedance matching. The soundboard can move the air much more easily than the string alone, because it is large and flat. This increases the entire system's energy transfer efficiency, and musicians emit a much louder sound.
In addition, the acoustic guitar has a hollow body, and an additional coupling and Martin guitar history dating methods effect increases the efficiency of energy transmission in lower frequencies. The air in a guitar's cavity resonates with the vibrational modes of the string and soundboard. At low frequencies, which depend on the size of the box, the chamber acts like a Helmholtz resonatorincreasing or decreasing the volume of the sound again depending
Martin guitar history dating methods whether the air in the box moves in phase or out of phase with the strings.
When in phase, the sound increases by about 3 decibels. In opposing phase, it decreases about 3 decibels. These resonance interactions Martin guitar history dating methods or amplify the sound at different frequencies, boosting or damping various harmonic tones. Ultimately, the cavity air vibrations couple to the outside air through the sound hole,  though some [ which? This coupling is most efficient because here the impedance matching is perfect: A guitar has several sound coupling modes: The back of the guitar also vibrates to some degree, driven by air in the cavity and mechanical coupling to the rest of the guitar.
The guitar—as an acoustic system—colors the sound by the way it generates and emphasizes harmonics, and how it couples this energy to the surrounding air which ultimately is what we perceive as loudness.
Improved coupling, however, comes costing decay time, since the string's energy is more efficiently transmitted.
Solid body electric guitars with no soundboard at all produce very low volume, but tend to have long sustain. All these complex air coupling interactions, and the resonant properties of the panels themselves, are a key reason that different guitars have different tonal qualities. The sound is a complex mixture of harmonics that give the guitar its distinctive sound. Classical gut-string guitars had little projection, and so were unable to displace banjos until innovations increased their volume.
An acoustic guitar can be amplified by using various types of pickups or microphones. However, amplification of acoustic guitars had many problems with audio feedback. In the s, Ovation 's parabolic bowls dramatically reduced feedback, allowing greater amplification of acoustic guitars. The Adamas model dissipated the sound-hole of the traditional soundboard among 22 small sound-holes in the upper chamber of the guitar, yielding greater volume and further reducing feedback during amplification.
The most common type of pickups used for acoustic guitar amplification are piezo and magnetic pickups. Piezo pickups are generally mounted under the bridge saddle of Martin guitar history dating methods acoustic guitar and can be plugged into a mixer or amplifier.
A Piezo pickup made by Baldwin was incorporated in the body of Ovation guitars, rather than attached by drilling through the body;  the combination of the Piezo pickup and parabolic "roundback" body helped Martin guitar history dating methods succeed in the market during the s.
Magnetic pickups on acoustic guitars are generally mounted in the sound hole, and are similar to those in electric guitars. acoustic guitar with pickups for electrical amplification is called an acoustic-electric guitar. In the s, manufacturers introduced new types of pickups to try to amplify the full sound of these instruments.
This includes body sensors, and systems that include an internal microphone along with body sensors or under-the-saddle pickups. Historical and modern Martin guitar history dating methods guitars are extremely varied in their design and construction, far more so than electric guitars.
Some of the most important varieties are the classical guitar nylon-stringedsteel-string acoustic guitar and lap steel guitar. Range — The Martin guitar history dating methods common body shape, sometimes called a mini jumbois three-quarters the size of a jumbo-shaped guitar.
A range shape typically has a rounded back to improve projection for the smaller body. Grand Concert — This mid-sized body shape is not as deep as other full-size guitars, but has a full waist. Because of the smaller body, grand concert guitars have a more controlled overtone  and are often used for its sound projection when recording. Auditorium — Similar in dimensions to the dreadnought body shape,  but with a much more pronounced waist. The shifting of Martin guitar history dating methods waist provides different tones to stand out.
The auditorium body shape is a newer body when compared to the other shapes such as dreadnought. Dreadnought — This is the classic guitar body shape. The style was designed by Martin Guitars  to produce a deeper sound than "classic"-style guitars, with very resonant bass. Used for over years, it is still the most popular body style for acoustic guitars. This allows mid-range Martin guitar history dating methods to stand out, helping the guitar cut through an ensemble of instruments.
Jumbo — The largest standard guitar body shape found on acoustic guitars. It was designed by Gibson to compete with the dreadnought,  but with maximum resonant space for greater volume Martin guitar history dating methods sustain.
These come at the expense of being oversized, with a very deep sounding box, and thus somewhat more difficult to play. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Acoustic Guitar magazine. For the album by Preston Reed, see Acoustic Guitar album.
For the Danish group, see Acoustic Guitars band. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Martin combines more computer-driven machinery with traditional hand-crafting methods. Most Martin guitars made are "flat top" models. That is, they have a round. Only 27 of these guitars have been documented to date. Jenkins: Martin . In many ways the OM models were the first truly modern flattop guitars. They were the first. Ever wondered why Martin guitars are so popular? Martin use the quarter sawn technique when they cut their wood. Their rich history in music, and the fact CF Martin was responsible for creating the Lee Glynn on A Guide to Tanglewood Acoustic Guitars; Lee Glynn on Dating Your B.C.